Trademark Class Basics: An Introduction to the 45 International Trademark Classes

The USPTO categorizes trademarks into 45 unique classes, which each relate to a particular group of products or services.

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) categorizes marks into 45 specific trademark classes.

Using these classes as general guidelines, a business can register any name, slogan, symbol, logo, or smell that helps distinguish their brand from similar marks in the same class.

In this article, we’ll give you a quick rundown of each of these trademark classes, along with common examples of products and services contained within each.

Trademark Class Basics

successful online shop business partners in a small office. male and female entrepreneurs at their online shop warehouse looking at camera and smiling.
Trademark Class Basics: An Introduction to the 45 International Trademark Classes

Before we begin, it may be helpful to explain what, exactly, a trademark is and why they are an important tool for protecting your brand.

A trademark is a word, phrase, symbol, or other distinguishable form of intellectual property that identifies the source of certain products and services as belonging to a particular business.

The end-goal of trademark law is to reduce consumer confusion by ensuring that no two businesses or brands are “confusingly similar” to the point where the average person would mistake the products or services of one brand for another.

In order to qualify for trademark protections the mark must be distinctive and used in commerce as a part of the business’s ongoing activities.

Importantly, businesses and individuals gain trademark protections from the moment they use the mark “in commerce.”

However, registration with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is required to actually enforce those rights in the real world (such as in the case of an infringement suit).

To apply for a trademark you must have a clear representation of the mark in question as well as a general sense of the specific class(es) of goods and services you wish to apply under.

This is because trademark protections only apply in the specific class or classes you choose to file under, hence why Delta Airlines and Delta Faucets can both lay claim to the “Delta” name, as they operate in completely different industries.

The 45 International Trademark Classes

As one final note before we begin, you should remember that the USPTO breaks these trademark classes down into both goods and services classes.

Classes 1 through 34 are used for goods and products, while 35 through 45 are reserved for services.

Trademark Classes for Products

Class 1: Chemical Goods — Class 1 is a very broad category encompassing many different chemical goods. It includes chemicals used in industry, science, photography, agriculture, horticulture, and forestry, as well as many others.

Class 2: Paints — Class 2 is for paints, varnishes and lacquers, preservatives, and other colorants. Additionally, Class 2 covers certain foil and powder metals for artists.

Class 3: Perfumes and Personal Hygiene — Class 3 includes all soaps and personal hygiene items, such as perfumes, cosmetics, hair products, and shaving products. Detergent, bleaches, and abrasives for household cleaning and polishing also fall under this class.

Class 4: Fuels, Oils, and Illuminants — Class 4 includes both liquid fuels, such as gasoline or some alcohols, and solid fuels, such as coal. In a similar way, wax, wood, and other illuminants are also covered here. Finally, the Nice agreement also includes some green energy services, even those that would otherwise avoid the term “fuel,” in this class. This is because Class 4 also covers most products that are used to make electrical energy.

Class 5: Pharmaceutical, Medical, and Veterinary Products — Class 5 includes pharmaceutical, veterinary, and sanitary products. Some common examples of products in this class are diapers, medical shampoos, dietary supplements, and personal hygiene products that do not count as toiletries.

Class 6: Common Metals — Class 6 includes partly wrought and unwrought metals. For example, metal goods used in buildings and railways, metal pipes and tubes, and nuts and bolts all fall under this class. Certain other forms of metal hardware also fall under Class 6, such as wires, chains, aluminum foil, and metal signs.

Class 7: Machines and Machine Parts — Class 7 covers a wide array of machines and their parts, from 3D printers to industrial robots and engines. Most non-hand operated, non-vehicular machines fall under this classification.

Class 8: Hand Operated Tools — Class 8 is very similar to Class 7, but specifically covers hand-operated tools and machines. Basically, if you need a hand, rather than a motor, to use it, then it would fall under this class. For example, hammers, razors, kitchen knives, and certain gardening tools all fall under this class.

Class 9: Electric and Scientific Apparatus — An electric or scientific “apparatus” is a piece of technical or mechanical equipment created to perform a very specific job. For instance, recording and media equipment (whether audio or video), fall under Class 9. Class 9 also includes computer parts and electrical parts such as fuses, sockets, and plugs.

Class 10: Medical Apparatus — Similarly to Class 9, Class 10 includes medical apparatuses, equipment, and supplies that are specifically made for diagnosing and treating people and animals. These products range from rehabilitation tools to veterinary supplies, artificial organs, and more.

Class 11: Appliances — Any industrial or home appliance used to clean, cook, or otherwise make a space cleaner or nicer go in Class 11. This can include air-conditioning, electric kettles, electric cooking utensils, and refrigerators.

Class 12: Vehicles — This class includes all vehicles and vehicle parts that help transport people and goods by land, air, and water. Airplanes, boats, cars, transmission parts, steering wheels, and many other vehicle-related marks go into this class.

Class 13: Firearms, Fireworks, and Explosives — Weapons, ammunition, pyrotechnics, and other non-military explosives are in Class 13.

Class 14: Jewelry — This class includes things such as jewelry, cufflinks, clocks, watches, and the components used to make these things. This class also covers precious and semi-precious stones.

Class 15: Musical Instruments — This category covers all musical instruments and their components, both acoustic and electric.

Class 16: Paper Products — This class mostly deals with paper and the things people use to organize paper. If it’s made of paper, or holds paper in some way, it’s probably in Class 16. Some examples include typewriters, painters’ easels, napkins, envelopes, and metal binder clips.

Class 17: Rubber and Plastic Products — This is another broad category that covers a variety of products made of rubber and plastic. Some examples are tubes and hoses, seals and fillers (like caulk), and insulation.

Class 18: Leather — Leather and non-leather suitcases and wallets, as well as certain leather animal supplies (like horse bridles), are in Class 18. Pelts, hides, and fur (including fake fur) are also in this class. It’s important to note that clothing made of leather is not in Class 18.

Class 19: Non-Metal Building Materials — Stone, metal, wood, and glass for building are in this class, along with any non-metal building materials. Cement, however, falls under Class 1.

Class 20: Furniture — All furniture, including furniture for outdoors, babies, or pets is in Class 20. This class is also for furniture components like dowels, pins, latches and hinges.

Class 21: Household Utensils — Trademark Class 21 includes kitchen utensils, pots and pans and hand-operated kitchen tools. This class also includes some cleaning tools and bathroom items, as well as most glassware and dishes. Finally, certain related items, such as combs and toothbrushes, watering cans, and aquariums, also fall under this class.

Class 22: Textiles and Fibers — Class 22 covers textiles including ropes, materials for ship and boat building, padding materials, cushioning and stuffing materials, raw fibrous materials, and other textiles.

Class 23: Threads and Yarns — This class is for yarns and threads for textile use.

Class 24: Textile Goods — Unlike Class 22, this class is for goods made from textiles. Some examples are fabrics, linens, flags, and wall hangings. Sleeping bags are also a common Class 24 product.

Class 25: Clothing — All clothing, including footwear and headwear, is in this class. Only certain specialized clothing falls under other classes, such as hair ribbons (Class 26).

Class 26: Cloth Finishing — Cording, lace, hooks, buttons, and accessories such as charms fall under the “cloth finishing” class. Interestingly, this class also includes false hair and hair accessories. Basically, most accessories used to compliment a particular outfit fall under Class 26.

Class 27: Floor Coverings — Carpets, rugs, mats, linoleum, and other general floor coverings are in Class 27. Non-textile wall hangings also go into this class.

Class 28: Games and Sporting Goods — This class includes all games, video games, sports equipment, toys, and playground equipment. Some religious holiday decorations are also in Class 28, such as Christmas tree ornaments.

Class 29: Meat, Dairy, and Nuts — Class 29 is for all meats, including seafood, that are intended for human consumption. It also includes dairy products, nuts, fruits, and vegetables.

Class 30: Bread, Baking Ingredients, Coffee, and Tea — As the second food-related trademark class on this list, class 30 covers a wide range of food items prepared from plants.

Class 31: Natural Agricultural Goods — Class 31 is for raw and unprocessed agricultural products and grains that are not included in other classes. For instance, seaweed, raw cocoa beans, and flower bulbs all fall under this class. This class also covers living animals, natural plants and flowers, and animal feed.

Class 32: Beverages — All non-alcoholic beverages, including bottled water, are in this class. All beer and beer products (like malt beer) are also included in Class 32. Syrups and other flavorings can also fall under this class, while things like milk, coffee, cocoa, and tea bases all fall under Class 29 and Class 30.

Class 33: Alcoholic Beverages — Wine, liquor, cocktail ingredients, and pre-mixed alcoholic beverages are in Class 33.

Class 34: Tobacco Products — This class covers all products that contain tobacco or are related to smoking tobacco, such as cigarettes, matches, and ashtrays.

Trademark Classes for Services

little girl holding the earth in her hands.

Class 35: Advertising and Business Management — Class 35 is the first of the service classes. This is an intentionally broad category that includes all services that involve advertising, human resources, office services, and consulting.

Class 36: Insurance and Financial Services — This class covers insurance, real estate, banking, and investment services.

Class 37: Repair, Installation, Construction, and Laundry Services — Not only does this broad category include construction and repair services for buildings and technology, but it also covers vehicle and airplane maintenance. Mining and drilling, as well as laundry services, are also in Class 37.

Class 38: Telecommunication Services — Any service that allows one person to talk to another person, one person to send a message to another person, or one person to send a visual or audio message to another is in trademark Class 38.

Class 39: Shipping and Travel Services — The travel industry is in Class 39. Anything related to getting people and products from one place to another falls under this classification. In this way, this class also includes any service related to the packaging, transport, and storage of goods.

Class 40: Treatment of Materials Services — This trademark class has to do with the treatment or transformation of materials. This “treatment” usually involves chemical or mechanical processing, but it can also include the transformation of organic products. Common examples include blacksmithing, cloth dyeing, food preservation, and woodworking.

Class 41: Education and Entertainment Services — Class 41 covers all services related to education or entertainment, both of people and animals. Some examples are publishing services, media production, and fitness centers.

Class 42: Science and Technology Services — Scientific and technological services, design, and the development of computer hardware and software are in Class 42.

Class 43: Restaurant and Hotel Services — Class 43 includes all names and marks related to accommodation and food services. This includes bed and breakfast hotels, animal boarding, and most bars and restaurants.

Class 44: Healthcare, Beauty, and Agricultural Services — Class 44 covers services which increase the health and beauty of people, plants, and animals. Remember that this class is for services, not the production of goods. So, while dog grooming would fall under this class, dog shampoo would not.

Class 45: Personal, Social, and Security Services — Essentially, any business that protects, or supervises, property or individuals goes into this class. This definition is intentionally broad, as Class 45 covers a wide range of services from firefighting to pet sitting and legal services. Escorts, matrimonial agencies, and funeral services also fall under this class.


glowing light bulb with scattered wood letters on background, finding inspiration idea concept

Be sure to click on each trademark class above for a more detailed description.

If you have any further questions about which class you should file your trademark under, feel free to contact one of our experienced trademark attorneys today.

Share This Post

Related Articles

The word Copyright as neon glowing unique typeset symbols, luminous letters copyright

What is a DMCA Takedown?

Artists, streamers, and other content creators can use DMCA takedown requests to protect their work from individuals and websites infringe on their rights.

Fill out the form below and we’ll be in touch within 1 business day!

Are you ready for a superior client experience?

We’re a Richmond, Virginia law firm with clients from around the world. Schedule your consultation today and let’s talk about what we can do for you!