The Ultimate Business Owner's Handbook

Welcome to the Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook, your comprehensive guide to legal strategies for business formation, compliance, and growth.

As a business owner, it’s crucial to understand the legal aspects of running a successful company.

In this handbook, we’ll share our expertise to help you navigate the complexities of business law and intellectual property rights, while also introducing you to the concept of a fractional general counsel.

Chapter 1: Intro to the Handbook & Fractional General Counsel

In this section, we will explain what kind of businesses will benefit most from the Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook.

Additionally, we will introduce the concept of fractional general counsel and how it can benefit businesses.


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Empowering You with Expert Knowledge

Our primary goal with the Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook is to educate and inform our audience. This comprehensive guide will cover topics such as business formation, protecting intellectual property (trademarks and copyrights), recommendations on tools to help businesses meet legal and compliance needs, and the benefits of engaging with transactional and litigation services.

As you explore the handbook, you’ll gain a deeper understanding of the legal aspects of running a business, empowering you to make informed decisions that protect your company and support its growth. With the right guidance from an intellectual property lawyer or business lawyer, you can confidently tackle challenges and seize opportunities in today’s business environment.

The Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook is a valuable resource for business owners seeking expert knowledge and guidance in legal matters. By targeting the unique needs of growing businesses and startups, this comprehensive guide empowers entrepreneurs to navigate the legal landscape with confidence, ensuring the success and longevity of their companies.

Dive in and discover the expert strategies that will help you build a thriving, legally compliant business!

Ideal Businesses for this Guide

The types of businesses that will benefit from our guide include:

  • Businesses with annual revenues between $1 million and $5 million
  • Funded startups that have secured initial capital

These businesses are in the growth phase and need expert guidance on various legal and compliance matters to ensure their continued success.

If you fall into these categories, the Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook is tailored to meet your unique needs. We’ll help you navigate the legal landscape, address pressing concerns, and outline strategies to safeguard your business’s future.

Other Businesses That Can Benefit

While the core content is geared towards businesses with $1 million to $5 million in annual revenue and funded startups, the Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook can also benefit other businesses such as:

  • Businesses with annual revenues between $5 million and $20 million
  • New businesses and startups without secured funding

For new businesses and startups without secured funding, you’ll find valuable information here that can guide your initial steps and set you up for long-term success as you lay the groundwork for your company.

Businesses with annual revenues between $5 million and $20 million can also find valuable insights in this handbook as they grow and expand. 

Who This Guide is Not For

Businesses with annual revenues more than $20 million should consider hiring an in-house legal professional. This option will not only be more practical, but it will be better suited for addressing the needs of a company that size.

If this is you, we’re still happy to work with your inside team when you have overflow work or other specific tasks our firm might be best suited for.

Fractional General Counsel:
A Game-Changer for Growing Businesses

The Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook not only covers essential legal topics but also introduces you to the benefits of working with a fractional general counsel.

Many business owners are familiar with the concept of a fractional CFO (a part-time financial expert who offers financial management and business consulting services). A fractional general counsel is a similar idea applied to the legal industry. These professionals provide ongoing legal services and consultancy, helping businesses navigate the legal landscape without the need for a full-time, in-house legal expert.

Benefits of fractional general counsel include:

  • Proactive legal services
  • Strong attorney/client relationship
  • Regular communication
  • Greater responsiveness
  • Flexible service offerings
  • Predictable costs (typically via subscription)

By partnering with a business lawyer who understands your industry and your company’s unique needs, you’ll gain a valuable ally in your quest for success.

Common Problems with Traditional Legal Services

As a business owner, identifying and addressing legal issues is crucial to safeguarding and growing your business. However, working with traditional legal services can present challenges that may hinder your business’s progress. These challenges include, but are not limited to:

  • Unpredictable costs
  • Lack of responsiveness from the lawyer
  • Inflexible service offerings
  • Reactive legal help

In this section, we discuss these common challenges business owners face when working with traditional legal services.

Unpredictable Costs

One of the most significant concerns when hiring a business lawyer is the unpredictable costs associated with their services. Many business owners are hesitant to work with and hire a lawyer due to potentially high legal fees, particularly if they have never worked with one before. This unpredictability can deter some business owners from seeking legal assistance, which could expose their business to various risks.

One possible solution to this issue is to choose legal service providers that offer clear pricing and billing. For example, some law firms provide flat fees, capped fees, or subscription-based services, allowing you to better manage your legal expenses and receive continuous legal support tailored to your business’s needs.

Lack of Responsiveness

When running a business, time is valuable. Slow response times from traditional legal professionals can hinder your ability to make crucial decisions and move forward with your business operations. It is vital to work with a legal expert who understands the importance of timely communication and is committed and able to provide the support you need promptly.

To overcome this challenge, consider establishing clear communication guidelines and expectations with your legal service provider from the onset of your engagement. This includes defining response times for different types of inquiries, setting regular update meetings, and agreeing on communication channels. By fostering a strong attorney-client relationship, you can ensure greater responsiveness and regular communication, allowing you to make well-informed decisions without unnecessary delays.

Reactivity and Inflexibility

Traditional legal services can sometimes be inflexible and reactive, with lawyers providing advice after problems emerge. This approach can be detrimental to your business, as it does not allow for proactive planning and risk mitigation. Ideally, your legal counsel should be proactive in identifying potential legal issues and addressing them before they escalate into significant problems.

Additionally, when you engage with a traditional business lawyer, you might find that they offer a one-size-fits-all approach to legal services without considering the unique needs and goals of your business. This inflexibility can lead to poor outcomes and missed opportunities for growth.

To tackle this issue, look for legal professionals who are willing to understand your business’s specific needs and customize their services based on those needs. By working closely with you to comprehend your business and its unique challenges, a flexible legal counsel can offer proactive solutions that align with your objectives and support your long-term success.

The Advantages of Fractional General Counsel

In the evolving landscape of legal services, Fractional General Counsel has emerged as an innovative solution that offers a variety of benefits including:

  • Proactive legal services
  • Strong attorney/client relationship
  • Regular communication
  • Greater responsiveness
  • Flexible service offerings
  • Predictable costs (typically via subscription)

This service model not only addresses the common problems associated with traditional legal services but also provides additional advantages that align with the strategic growth of your business.

Proactive Legal Services

Unlike traditional reactive legal services, Fractional General Counsel operates on a proactive basis. This approach allows businesses to avoid potential legal issues, mitigate risks, and make informed strategic decisions.

Proactive legal services involve continuous monitoring and assessment of your business environment, allowing for timely identification and management of potential legal risks. Instead of waiting for a problem to arise, a Fractional General Counsel is consistently engaged with your business, providing ongoing advice and guidance.

This approach can lead to significant cost savings, as it can prevent expensive legal disputes and compliance issues from developing in the first place.

Strong Attorney-Client Relationship

One of the key benefits of engaging a Fractional General Counsel is the opportunity to develop a strong attorney-client relationship. This relationship is built on trust, regular communication, and a deep understanding of your business.

When you Strong Attorney-Client Relationshipwork with a Fractional General Counsel, you have a dedicated legal advisor who becomes an integral part of your team. They take the time to understand your business, its goals, and its unique challenges. This relationship allows for a more personalized service, tailored to the specific needs of your business.

The strong attorney-client relationship also fosters enhanced communication. Your Fractional General Counsel is always accessible, providing you with the advice and information you need when you need it. This level of responsiveness can help you navigate complex legal issues with confidence and ease.

Subscription-based and Customizable Offerings

Fractional General Counsel services are typically offered on a subscription basis. This model not only provides predictability in terms of legal expenses, but it also ensures you have continuous access to legal expertise. Depending on the needs of your business, the subscription can be customized to include a range of services, from contract review and negotiation, to compliance management and strategic legal advice.

Additionally, a subscription-based model provides the flexibility to adapt to your changing business needs. As your business grows and evolves, your Fractional General Counsel can adjust the scope of services to ensure your legal requirements are always met. This model ensures you have the necessary legal support at every stage of your business journey.

Client Avatars:
The Different Types of Businesses and Their Unique Legal Needs

To understand the varied legal needs of businesses and how fractional general counsel can help, let’s take a look at some examples using three different client avatars. Each of these businesses, Sarah’s e-commerce business, John’s manufacturing company, and Emily’s tech startup, have unique challenges and requirements in the legal landscape.

What's Next in the Ultimate Business Owner's Handbook?

We’ve designed each chapter in the Ultimate Business Owner’s Handbook to serve as a roadmap for navigating the complex legal landscape of running a business. Let’s take a sneak peek at what lies ahead, and how our client avatars, Sarah, John, and Emily, will illustrate the key points in each chapter.

Overview of the Upcoming Chapters

Chapter 2: Business Formation 101 focuses on the legalities of starting a business. We’ll delve into topics such as choosing the right business structure, registering a business, and the legal requirements that come with these decisions.

Chapter 3: Essential Contract Strategies for Small Businesses provides insight into the world of contracts. From drafting and negotiating agreements to managing contractual disputes, this chapter covers essential strategies that can protect your business and its interests.

Chapter 4: Building a Legally Strong Brand explores the importance of safeguarding your business’s identity. We’ll discuss intellectual property rights, including trademarks and copyrights, and how these can protect your brand’s unique elements.

Chapter 5: Mastering Compliance: Recommended Tools and Practices aims to help you navigate the landscape of regulatory compliance. This chapter will guide you through the necessary tools and practices that can ensure your business meets its legal obligations.

Chapter 6: Litigation & Enforcement Services provides an overview of what to expect if your business faces litigation or needs to enforce its rights. This chapter offers strategies on how to handle these situations effectively and protect your business.

Chapter 7: Subscription Legal Services & Working with Tingen Law provides an overview of our unique legal service offerings and how we can assist your business in its legal journey.

How the Client Avatars Will Be Utilized in Each Section

Our client avatars Sarah, John, and Emily will serve as guiding characters throughout these chapters. Each business owner will illustrate the unique legal challenges their businesses face, and how the strategies discussed can be applied in a real-world context.

In Business Formation 101, we will use Sarah’s e-commerce business as a case study to demonstrate the steps involved in starting a business. John’s manufacturing company will help illustrate the intricacies of contract negotiation in Essential Contract Strategies for Small Businesses. Emily’s tech startup will serve as a prime example of the importance of protecting intellectual property rights in Building a Legally Strong Brand.

Mastering Compliance will use all three avatars to highlight the importance of regulatory compliance in diverse business sectors. In Litigation & Enforcement Services, we will delve into potential legal disputes each business owner could face and how they could navigate such situations.

Finally, Subscription Legal Services & Working with Tingen Law will use each avatar to demonstrate how our services can be tailored to meet unique business needs, ensuring a strong and proactive legal support system.

Chapter 2: Business Formation 101

When launching a new venture, one of the most critical steps is choosing the right structure for your business.

This decision determines not only how your business will be run, but also the kind of legal protection you’ll have and the way your business will be taxed.

This section will act as your guide through the essentials of business formation, providing insights into legal structures, tax designations, and more.

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Why Do I Need to Understand Business Formation?

A basic understanding of business formation is key to ensuring the successful launch and operation of your business.

It serves as the foundation of your entire operation and directly influences every other aspect, from taxation to the level of personal liability you’ll assume.

In fact, choosing the right business structure may even help your business qualify for certain funding opportunities that are specifically designed for specific business entities.

Legal Structures & Tax Designations

Choosing the right business structure and tax designation is a critical part of forming your business. The decision will impact your personal liability, taxation, and the cost and complexity of running your business. Here, we explore the different types of legal structures and tax designations to help you determine which is best for your business.

Legal Structures

There are several types of legal structures, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing the appropriate one for your business requires understanding each structure and how it aligns with your business needs.

Sole Proprietorships & General Partnerships

Sole proprietorships are businesses owned and run by one person. Similarly, general partnerships involve two or more owners jointly running a business. Both of these structures are straightforward to set up and operate. However, owners bear personal responsibility for the business’s debts and liabilities, which could put their personal assets at risk.

Limited Partnerships

A limited partnership involves general partners running the business while limited partners contribute capital and have minimal control over the operation. In this case, limited partners enjoy limited liability and general partners bear the risk for debts and liabilities.

Limited Liability Companies (LLCs)

An LLC is a more flexible option that offers limited liability protection to its owners (known as members) like a corporation, but with less formality and complexity.

A more in-depth look at this structure can be found below.


Corporations are complex entities, separate from their owners (shareholders), which can own property, sign contracts, and even face lawsuits. Owners’ liability is limited to their investment in the corporation, protecting personal assets.

A more in-depth look at this structure can be found below.

B Corporations

B Corporations are for-profit companies that want to consider social and environmental impact alongside profit. They’re subject to transparency standards and are legally responsible for their impact on workers, society, and the environment.

Nonprofit Corporation

Nonprofit corporations are organized to further a specific social cause or advocate a shared point of view. They are exempt from paying corporate income tax on profits made from activities related to their mission.

Tax Designations

When setting up your business, another critical decision is selecting the right tax designation. One important reason why is because your legal structure and tax designation do not always match.

For example, you might have an LLC and be taxed as an S Corp or you might have a corporation and be taxed as a partnership.

While this section provides helpful information, we recommend you speak with an accountant to ensure you select the appropriate tax designation.


A partnership is a tax designation where business profits pass through to the owners’ personal tax returns. This structure avoids double taxation but comes with the risk of personal liability for business debts.

S Corporations

An S Corp is a tax designation for corporations and LLCs that provides pass-through taxation benefits, reducing the risk of double taxation. In this designation, the owners’ liability remains limited to their investment in the company.

C Corporations

A C Corp is a separate legal entity that pays its taxes at the corporate level. While this structure leads to double taxation (corporate tax and individual tax on dividends), it provides several tax planning opportunities and benefits.

Limited Liability Companies (LLCs): An In-Depth Look

Limited Liability Company (LLC) is considered the most popular business structure for small to medium sized businesses. This hybrid structure offers the operational simplicity of a partnership or sole proprietorship and the personal liability protection of a corporation. 

Personal Liability Protection

Members (the owner’s) of an LLC aren’t personally responsible for the company’s debts and liabilities. This means your personal assets, such as your home or personal savings, are generally protected if your business incurs debt or faces a lawsuit.

Flexible Management Structure

LLCs offer a flexible management structure, allowing for either member-managed or manager-managed setups. This versatility makes it a popular choice for business owners seeking ease of operation.

Pass-Through Tax Entity

Typically, LLCs function as pass-through tax entities. As such, LLCs themselves don’t pay additional taxes, further simplifying the administrative process for business owners.

Easier Compliance Requirements

While LLCs come with easier compliance requirements, it doesn’t mean there are none. Basic formalities like having a written operating agreement and conducting an annual meeting to review operations are vital to maintain limited liability protection.

Corporations: An In-Depth Look

Corporations are unique with their clear separation of ownership and control, which results in limited liability for shareholders. This legal structure is designed to exist perpetually, independent of its shareholders, making it a great choice for businesses aiming to attract investors.

Separation of Ownership and Control

Shareholders in a corporation own stock but have no control over daily operations. This principle safeguards personal assets, providing liability protection.

Issuing Stock and Raising Capital

Corporations have the advantage of issuing stock to raise funds. While primarily beneficial for public companies or IPO-oriented startups, this aspect enables significant economic growth and public benefit.

The Corporate Structure

Corporations consist of shareholders, officers, and a board. A startup founder might be all three, but it’s essential to maintain personal and business separation to prevent liability issues.

Higher Compliance Burden

Corporations carry a higher compliance burden due to their complex structure. This complexity necessitates regular meetings, managing stock certificates, and maintaining clear descriptions of officers’ roles.

Client Avatar Example:
Legal Structures

To help you understand how the business legal structure can influence the operations, growth strategies, and legal obligations of your venture, let’s consider two client avatars: Sarah and Emily.

In both examples, the choice of business structure is influenced by the nature of the business, the plans for growth, and the degree of formality the owner is prepared to undertake. 

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Sarah's E-commerce Business: LLC

Sarah is an entrepreneur looking to establish a home décor business. She wants to run her business without partners and aims to sell her unique creations at local markets and online.

In Sarah’s case, an LLC would be an ideal business structure.

Sarah’s business model is straightforward. She’s not looking to attract investors, and her growth plan is organic, rather than ambitious scaling.

An LLC would be a perfect fit for Sarah’s business needs. It provides her with personal liability protection, meaning her personal assets would be protected from any business-related debts or lawsuits. It also offers her the ability to run her business without the formalities and complex requirements of a corporation.

Sarah would also have the option to choose how her LLC is taxed. For instance, she could elect to be taxed as a sole proprietor, allowing business profits to flow directly to her personal income, avoiding the double taxation scenario faced by corporations. Another option she has is to be taxed as an S Corporation, potentially saving on self-employment taxes.

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Emily's Tech Startup: Corporation

Emily is planning to launch a tech startup and envisions growing her business with the help of external investors. She expects her company will need substantial capital investments and plans to issue shares in exchange for funding.

For Emily’s needs, a corporation would be the most appropriate business structure.

Incorporating allows Emily to sell shares and raise the capital needed for rapid scaling. It also provides a strong layer of personal liability protection and allow for unlimited growth potential. The clear distinction between personal and business assets offered by a corporate structure safeguards Emily’s personal assets from business liabilities.

Emily must also decide whether to form a C Corporation or an S Corporation. While an S Corp can provide tax advantages, it has restrictions on ownership that might not align with her venture capital objectives. A C Corp, while subject to double taxation, provides more flexibility for attracting a diverse range of investors.

Compliance Requirements

When it comes to running a business, compliance is not just a recommendation—it’s a necessity. Each business structure, from sole proprietorships to corporations, carries specific legal and tax obligations.

While this section highlights key compliance requirements for different business structures, we recommend partnering with a fractional general counsel or business lawyer. That way you can ensure your company meets the appropriate compliance requirements.

Universal Requirements

There are certain requirements that you will encounter no matter what business structure you have. Here are universal compliance requirements you will need to ensure you address:

  • Getting a Federal Employer Identification Number (FEIN)
  • Obtaining a state tax ID
  • Setting up payroll (you’ll need your state tax ID for this)
  • Business license (contact your local municipality as each is different)
  • Bank account(s)

Sole Proprietorships & General Partnerships

In many ways, sole proprietorships and general partnerships enjoy relatively simple compliance requirements. These business types don’t have to hold annual meetings or record minutes. However, the owner(s) must report business income and expenses on their personal tax returns.

Though simpler in structure, these businesses can still encounter more challenging compliance requirements, especially regarding local licenses and permits or dealing with any business-related disputes. They can greatly benefit from a business lawyer’s guidance in these situations.

LLCs: Flexibility with Formality

While the Limited Liability Company (LLC) offers a flexible business structure, but there are still compliance factors to consider. LLCs need to file an annual report in most states and should maintain a clear separation of personal and business finances to protect and maintain their limited liability status.

Moreover, if your LLC has multiple members, a well-drafted Operating Agreement is crucial. It provides clear guidance on how the company is run and outlines what happens if a member wants to leave the business.

Corporations: Strictest Regulations

Corporations face the most rigorous compliance requirements. 

They must hold regular meetings, record minutes, issue stock and maintain stock transfer ledgers, and adhere to the bylaws. Moreover, corporations must file an annual report, pay annual fees, and ensure their financial activities are transparent to shareholders.

Corporate compliance can be complex. We highly recommend partnering with a fractional general counsel or business lawyer to ensure that your corporation not only meets its current obligations but also anticipates future legal and regulatory shifts.

B Corps and Nonprofits: Special Compliance Requirements

Nonprofit corporations and B Corps also have specific compliance requirements. For instance, nonprofits must ensure they operate exclusively for charitable, scientific, religious, or other approved purposes to maintain tax-exempt status. B Corps, on the other hand, must consider their broader social and environmental impact.

While not as complex as the regulations facing corporations, expert legal advice can be invaluable to B Corps and Nonprofits. Having legal counsel will assist in navigating the specific compliance requirements and preventing issues that will result in you losing your tax status.

Where to File Your Business

Understanding where to file your business is crucial in the formation process. It can have lasting implications on your tax liabilities, legal responsibilities, and even business opportunities.

Let’s dive in!

Does It Matter Where You File?

In short, yes, it absolutely does. Where you choose to file your business significantly impacts your legal and financial landscape. The chosen jurisdiction determines your tax obligations, filing fees, privacy protections, and even the corporate laws governing your business. Essentially, it shapes the legal framework within which your business operates.

Registration State vs. Principal or Headquarter State

A business typically has a registration state—the state where it’s legally incorporated—and a principal or headquarter state, where it conducts most of its operations. While these can be the same, businesses often operate across multiple states or have strategic reasons for incorporating outside their principal state.

Where You Should File

Your Physical Location/Headquarter State

Generally, you should file where you live and do business unless you have a good reason to file somewhere else. This is usually the state where you have significant business activities or substantial presence. Doing so eliminates the need to file additional paperwork to qualify as a foreign entity in your home state, which could be an unnecessary burden for small to medium-sized businesses.


Delaware is often considered the gold standard for incorporation, particularly for large corporations. It offers a well-developed body of corporate law, dedicated business courts, and a reputation for business-friendly policies. However, unless you’re planning to seek venture capital, go public, or anticipate complex legal disputes, the benefits may not outweigh the costs for smaller businesses.

Other Locations

Other states like Nevada, Wyoming, and South Dakota have gained popularity due to their favorable tax laws and privacy protections. These may be attractive depending on your business needs. You might also consider another state because you or one of your investors have access to specific counsel or experts in that state. However, it’s still essential to consider not only the apparent benefits but also potential hidden costs such as extra paperwork, additional fees, and increased complexity.

Client Avatar Example:
Where You Should File​

To help illustrate how companies decide where to file, let’s look at our two client avatars, Sarah and Emily, again.

Practical Steps: Formation & Maintenance

Business isn’t just about legal strategies and compliance; it’s about the little, practical steps that keep the wheels turning. It’s these steps that often differentiate successful businesses from those that falter. 

Whether you’re just starting out or have been around for a while, these practical tips will help keep your operation running smoothly.

Keeping Things Organized

While this sounds like a no-brainer, it’s crucial in any successful business and gets overlooked quite often. You may be surprised by the number of growing, profitable companies that can’t locate their legal documents or have neglected bookkeeping and taxes for years. Sure, your business might be ticking along fine for now, but these oversights can catch up with you and potentially jeopardize your operation.

In today’s digital age, there’s no excuse for disorganization. Services like Dropbox and Google Drive make it easy to keep all your essential documents organized in one place. Forget the shoebox—scan your documents and store them electronically. This not only ensures you can access them at any time, but it also simplifies sharing these documents with your lawyer, accountant, or banker. Not to mention all the space you’ll save in your office!

Formalities & Standard Operating Procedures

When starting a business, it’s common to hit the ground running, with structure taking a back seat to action. 

However, as you grow and bring on more people, implementing formalities and standard operating procedures becomes vital. Not everyone can read your mind—having set processes in place makes it easier for your team to understand what needs to be done and how to do it without having to go to you for clarification or a giant mess.

For LLCs, consider at least an annual meeting to reflect on your operation, aligning with your operating agreement and ensuring your business continues on the right path. 

For corporations, maintaining formalities is not just a recommendation, it’s a requirement to preserve your limited liability. Regular meetings, minute keeping, and clear record storage are all part of this.

Regular Check-Ins

Whether you have a business lawyer or fractional general counsel, regular or annual check-ins are essential. 

For example, at our law firm, we have built regular check-ins into our fractional general counsel service. In these meetings, we discuss the significant legal and compliance issues you’re facing and plan for the next six months.

In between these semiannual meetings, we touch base to talk about these topics, assess progress, and adjust the course as needed. At the next six-month meeting, we evaluate where we’re at and prepare for the next stage. Our goal in this partnership is to organize your business for growth, setting you up to reach the next level.

We recommend using this structure, or something similar, in check-ins with your legal counsel.

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